Public Health Nutr 2012;15:254-261, 42. Martikainen JA, Soini EJ, Laaksonen DE, Niskanen L. Health economic consequences of reducing salt intake and replacing saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat in the adult Finnish population: estimates based on the FINRISK and FINDIET studies. These surveys included data from 66 countries, accounting for 74.1% of adults in the world.
We incorporated age-specific and sex-specific sodium intake, blood-pressure level, relative risk, and mortality data for each country to model the fraction and numbers of deaths estimated to be attributable to sodium intake above the reference level. ], 8.
Information and tools for librarians about site license offerings. Death after 25C-NBOMe and 25H-NBOMe consumption Forensic Sci Int.
Law MR, Morris JK, Wald NJ. The population-attributable fraction was estimated in a two-step process. Please keep the following in mind when posting a comment: Your comment must be in English or it will be removed. Singh GM, Danaei G, Farzadfar F, et al. 5. Detailed information about individual nations is provided in Section S9 and Table S5 in the Supplementary Appendix. The disability-adjusted life year (DALY) extends the concept of potential years of life lost due to premature death to include equivalent years of "healthy" life lost by virtue of being in states of poor health or disability. Danaei G, Finucane MM, Lin JK, et al. Achieving reduction in the harmful use of alcohol in line with the targets included in the SDG 2030 agenda and the WHO Global Monitoring Framework for Noncommunicable Diseases requires concerted action by countries, effective global governance and appropriate engagement of all relevant stakeholders.
The overall mortality from alcohol use was found to be similar to that of the effect of physical inactivity. 29. Bibbins-Domingo K, Chertow GM, Coxson PG, et al. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Prepare to become a physician, build your knowledge, lead a health care organization, and advance your career with NEJM Group information and services. Blood pressure indices and cardiovascular disease in the Asia Pacific region: a pooled analysis. We accounted for regression dilution bias based on serial blood-pressure measures over time.17,18 We interpolated and extrapolated age-specific proportional effects (relative risks) of systolic blood pressure on cardiovascular mortality in 10-year age groups across the pooling projects (see Section S2 and Fig. Address reprint requests to Dr. Mozaffarian at the Departments of Epidemiology and Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Ave., Bldg. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011 (http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2010/dietaryguidelines2010.pdf). Moreover, the harmful use of alcohol results in a significant health, social and economic burden on society at large. You might want to proof-read your comments before posting them. Each circle represents one randomized comparison of the intervention with the control group in each trial, and the size of the circle corresponds to its inverse-variance weight. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2010. He FJ, MacGregor GA. A comprehensive review on salt and health and current experience of worldwide salt reduction programmes. ], 23. National, regional, and global trends in systolic blood pressure since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 786 country-years and 5.4 million participants. Substantial scientific knowledge exists for policy-makers on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the following strategies: The harmful use of alcohol is one of the leading risk factors for population health worldwide and has a direct impact on many health-related targets of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), including those for maternal and child health, infectious diseases (HIV, viral hepatitis, tuberculosis), noncommunicable diseases and mental health, injuries and poisonings.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013;4:CD004937, 2.
The harmful use of alcohol can also result in harm to other people, such as family members, friends, co-workers and strangers.
Total alcohol per capita consumption in 2010 among male and female drinkers worldwide was on average 19.4 litres for males and 7.0 litres of pure alcohol for females. Consumption of substantial amounts of green tea and coffee may have reduced risk for all-cause death in adults with type 2 diabetes.
Panel B shows the proportional cardiovascular mortality (the percentage of all deaths from cardiovascular causes) attributed to sodium consumption above 2.0 g per day. Am J Kidney Dis 2012;59:229-237, 34.
Int J Obes (Lond) 2008;32:Suppl 6:S35-S47. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Cardiovascular Mortality Attributed to Sodium Consumption of More than 2.0 g per Day in 2010, According to Age and Region. Vertical lines represent 95% uncertainty (confidence) intervals. 2017 Oct;279:e1-e6. The lowest mean intake associated with both lower systolic blood pressure and a lower positive relationship between higher age and blood pressure in ecologic studies was 614 mg of sodium per day.23 In large, well-controlled, randomized feeding trials, the lowest tested sodium intake for which reductions in blood-pressure levels were clearly documented was 1500 mg per day.24 In prospective observational studies, the lowest mean sodium intake associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular events ranged from 1787 to 2391 mg per day.25 We also considered observed mean levels of sodium intake that have been associated with the lowest risk of stomach cancer (1245 mg per day).26 Levels of sodium intake associated with the lowest risk ranged from 614 to 2391 mg per day, depending on the type of evidence and the outcome. BMJ 1988;297:319-328, 24. Disclosure forms provided by the authors are available with the full text of this article at NEJM.org. Four of every 5 deaths (84.3%) occurred in low- and middle-income countries, and 2 of every 5 deaths (40.4%) were premature (before 70 years of age). Data on sodium intake were not available across all countries or years; this increased statistical uncertainty and the risk that some data could reflect sampling bias. For a complete listing of countries included in each region, see Table S4 in the Supplementary Appendix. A significant proportion of the disease burden attributable to alcohol consumption arises from unintentional and intentional injuries, including those due to road traffic crashes, violence, and suicides, and fatal alcohol-related injuries tend to occur in relatively younger age groups.
Hypertension 1994;24:752-757, 33. London: AICR, 2010. Each reduction in sodium intake of 2.30 g (100 mmol) per day was associated with a reduction of 3.82 mm Hg (95% CI, 3.08 to 4.55) in systolic blood pressure.
Second, we used the age-specific effects of blood pressure on cardiovascular mortality to calculate the resulting change in risk. Between March 2008 and December 2011, we performed systematic searches for previously conducted national or subnational surveys on individual-level sodium consumption based on urinary excretion, estimated dietary intake, or both.15,16 We identified and retrieved data, according to age and sex, from published reports or direct contacts for 205 surveys: 142 surveys with data from 24-hour urine collections and 91 with estimates of dietary intake, including 28 with both types of data (Table S2 in the Supplementary Appendix). To calculate the effects of systolic blood pressure on deaths from cardiovascular causes, we combined results from two large international projects (totaling 99 cohorts, 1.38 million participants, and 65,000 cardiovascular events) that pooled individual-level data, consistently adjusted for confounding. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010. As shown in Panel A, the effect of reduced sodium intake on systolic blood pressure was linear (P<0.001 for linearity), and there was little evidence of nonlinearity (P=0.58 for nonlinearity).
Whelton PK, Appel LJ, Sacco RL, et al. Alcohol consumption causes death and disability relatively early in life. Parmer RJ, Stone RA, Cervenka JH. The scale is based on the number of deaths from cardiovascular causes (per 1 million persons) in 2010 that were attributed to sodium consumption of more than 2.0 g per day.
Graudal NA, Hubeck-Graudal T, Jurgens G. Effects of low sodium diet versus high sodium diet on blood pressure, renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterol, and triglyceride.
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The study has been published in … Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011;11:CD004022. Notably, 4 of 5 of these deaths occurred in low- and middle-income countries, and 2 of 5 of these deaths occurred prematurely (before the age of 70 years).
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