did texas ratify the equal rights amendment of 1972?
That strategy does not involve Congress adjusting, amending, or extending that ratification deadline, but urges states to ignore it altogether. As the Congressional Research Service has concluded, the 1972 ERA formally died when its ratification deadline passed on June 30, 1982. Many who opposed the 1972 Equal Rights Amendment did so on the basis of its wording: “SECTION 1. If you wish to submit a commentary to Texas Scorecard, please submit your article to [email protected]. 2” most probably would divest state lawmakers of the ability to ever again legislate on the subject of “sex”—a word whose meaning has undergone considerable change over the years. On March 22, 2017—the 45th anniversary of ERA’s presentation to the states by the 92nd Congress—the Nevada Legislature chose to “ratify” the long-dormant ERA, notwithstanding the fact that both deadlines of March 22, 1979, and June 30, 1982, passed decades earlier. Congress, they point out, did so when it extended the ERA ratification deadline from March 22, 1979, to June 30, 1982. On December 23, 1981, the U.S. District Court for the District of Idaho agreed on both issuesREF and the defendant, the Administrator of General Services, appealed to the Supreme Court. Anticipating Virginia’s 2020 “ratification” of ERA, the current 116th Congress’ House Judiciary Committee, on November 13, 2019, “marked-up” House Joint Resolution No. Copyright 2021, All rights reserved. The recent ERA “ratifications” by lawmakers in Nevada and Illinois did not go unnoticed in more conservative states. The issue is whether the 1972 ERA remains pending before the states. This “had the effect of formally proposing the amendment to the states for ratification.”REF. Res. And that is where things stood from 1982 until 2017. In May 1979, shortly after the original ratification deadline passed, the states of Idaho, which had rescinded its ratification, and Arizona, which had rejected ratification, filed suit in federal court. All 56 joint resolutions for proposing the ERA that include a ratification deadline place it in the proposing clause. The joint resolution proposing the 1972 ERA, for example, opens this way: “Resolved…that the following article is proposed as an amendment to the Constitution of the United States, which shall be valid…when ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission by the Congress.” Similarly, Section 3 of the 18th Amendment requires that it be “ratified…by the legislatures of the several States…within seven years from date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.”, When Congress does not impose a ratification deadline, the designation always appears in the joint resolution’s proposing clause. A proposed amendment is pending before the states until it is ratified by three-fourths of the states or expires if fewer than that number ratify it by any deadline that Congress has imposed.


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