shackleton endurance expedition

[110] She carried with her the greater part of the shore party's fuel, food rations, clothing and equipment, although the sledging rations for the depots had been landed ashore.

[69], The party now had land more or less continuously in sight. The success of the voyage depended on the pin-point accuracy of Worsley's navigation, using observations that would have to be made in the most unfavourable of conditions. [28], As his second-in-command, Shackleton chose Frank Wild, who had been with him on both the Discovery and Nimrod expeditions, and was one of the Farthest South party in 1909. Op 21 februari 1915 bereikt het schip zijn meest zuidelijke punt op 76°58' graden zuiderbreedte. [64] He argued that Admiralty law had lapsed since Endurance's sinking, and that he was no longer under orders. Het drijfijs dreef noordwaarts af met een snelheid van ruim tien kilometer per dag. [73] He had now decided they would try, if possible, to reach the distant Deception Island because a small wooden church had been reportedly erected for the benefit of whalers.

[62] By 5 December, they had passed 68°S, but the direction was turning slightly east of north. De tocht duurde van januari tot maart 1915. It is appropriate that this work should be carried out under the British Flag, since the whole of the area southward to the Pole is British territory. Op 10 mei was de storm minder sterk geworden. Several others were severely wounded, and many received decorations for gallantry. Door de hoge golven was de plaats waar ze aangekomen waren echter geen optie om een langdurig kamp op te zetten. Op 22 juli werden de eerste barsten in het ijs waargenomen. De zee was echter onrustig, waardoor de tocht moeizaam verliep. De overgebleven drie mannen waren te verzwakt om drie personen voort te trekken met de slede. Shackleton named it Caird Coast, after his principal backer.

His first thought was for Paulet Island, where he knew there was a hut containing a substantial food depot, because he had ordered it 12 years earlier while organising relief for Otto Nordenskjöld's stranded Swedish expedition. Op 26 oktober vertrok het schip vanuit Buenos Aires in de richting van Zuid-Georgia en de Zuidelijke Sandwicheilanden. [104], By 23 August, it seemed that Wild's no-stockpiling policy had failed. De Endurance-expeditie, ook wel Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition (1914-1917[1]) was de laatste grote expeditie naar Antarctica tijdens de Heroïsche Tijd van Antarcticaverkenningen[2]. De overige bemanning zou wetenschappelijk onderzoek moeten doen op het continent. "In the meantime", he wrote, "we must wait". [30] Royal Navy Chief Petty Officer Tom Crean, who had been awarded the Albert Medal for saving the life of Lieutenant Edward Evans on the Terra Nova Expedition, took leave from the navy to sign on as Endurance's second officer; another experienced Antarctic hand, Alfred Cheetham, became third officer. During the following days there were more tussles with the pack, which, on 14 December, was thick enough to halt the ship for 24 hours. Op 9 april om één uur in de namiddag werd de Dudley Docker als eerste te water gelaten. In 1964, vijftig jaar na het begin van de Endurance-expeditie, werd een reünie gehouden tussen de nog levende leden van de Weddell Sea Party. Op 27 augustus maakte het schip nog een tussenstop op Pictoneiland. [23] Shackleton received more than 5,000 applications for places on the expedition, including a letter from "three sporty girls" who suggested that if their feminine garb was inconvenient they would "just love to don masculine attire. Most of the Public Schools of England and Scotland helped the Expedition to purchase the dog teams, and Shackleton named a dog after each school that helped. De plannen voor de oversteek over Antarctica werden met het zinken van het schip definitief opgeborgen.

[85] On 8 May, South Georgia was sighted, after a 14-day battle with the elements that had driven the boat party to their physical limits. De Schotse ontdekkingsreiziger William Speirs Bruce, die de Schotse Nationale Antarctische Expeditie leidde tussen 1902 en 1904, had in 1908 plannen om de oversteek van Antarctica te maken, maar zag daar later van af. Hubert Hudson had de leiding over de Stancomb Wills en Shackleton zelf had de leiding over de James Caird. This territory had been discovered and named by William Speirs Bruce in 1904, during the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition. Mackintosh behield Arnold Spencer-Smith en Ernest Wild in zijn team. Shackleton  had the honour to place on the new land the names of the above and other generous donors to the Expedition. The position at abandonment was 69° 05′S, 51° 30′W.

[13] The Royal Geographical Society, from which he had expected nothing, gave him £1,000—according to Huntford, Shackleton, in a grand gesture, advised them that he would only need to take up half of this sum. [43] Strenuous efforts were made to release her; on 14 February, Shackleton ordered men onto the ice with ice-chisels, prickers, saws and picks, to try and force a passage, but the labour proved futile. Doordat hun voorraden snel verminderden moesten Joyce, Richards, Wild en Hayward door de storm lopen met Mackintosh en Spencer-Smith op de sledes. Er was geen geld beschikbaar om de SY Aurora direct te herstellen en van Shackleton was ook niets meer vernomen. This would act as the Ross Sea party's vessel. Opnieuw werd haltgehouden. Shackleton was tot en met 1919 gestationeerd in Moermansk.

Then, with the help of the British Minister in Montevideo, Shackleton obtained from the Uruguayan government the loan of a tough trawler, Instituto de Pesca No. “The glaciologist and geologist will study ice formations and the nature of the mountains, and this report will prove of great scientific interest. South with Endurance: Shackleton's Antarctic Expedition 1914–1917, the photographs of Frank Hurley. This lay far to the west, toward the South Shetland Islands, but Shackleton thought it might be attainable by island-hopping. De tekst is beschikbaar onder de licentie. [51], On 30 September, the ship sustained what Shackleton described as "the worst squeeze we had experienced". Hij was ontworpen door de bekende scheepsconstructeur Colin Archer. The remaining eight shore party members would carry out scientific work, three going to Graham Land, three to Enderby Land and two remaining at base camp. [114] The survivors eventually reached Cape Evans, but then had to wait for eight further months. Honour and recognition in event of success." Op 1 september 1915 begon de tocht aan Kaap Evans.

Een andere mogelijkheid was Snow Hill eiland, waar Nordenskjöld tijdens de winter van 1902 verbleef. It had been arranged for the Endurance to proceed to Cowes, to be inspected by His Majesty on the Monday of Cowes week. [5] However, his reports of possible landing sites in Vahsel Bay, at around 78° latitude, were noted by Shackleton, and incorporated into his developing expedition plans.

The news of Amundsen's conquest of the South Pole reached Shackleton on 11 March 1912, to which he responded: "The discovery of the South Pole will not be the end of Antarctic exploration". Thereafter she began moving with the pack in a northerly direction.

[118], Despite McNish's efforts in preparing and sailing on the James Caird voyage, his prior insubordination meant that, on Shackleton's recommendation, he was one of four men denied the Polar Medal; the others whose contributions fell short of Shackleton's expected standards were John Vincent, William Stephenson and Ernest Holness. Their destination was the whaling station at Stromness, which had been the last port of call of the Endurance on their outbound journey. Door de koude en het weinige voedsel voorzag Shackleton dat Elephanteiland de beste oplossing was om naartoe te varen. Shackleton moest ten slotte nog op zoek naar personeel[7]. Davis was in de expeditie van Mawson kapitein van de SY Aurora, het schip dat nu de Ross Sea Party zou gebruiken. [60] They gave the name "Ocean Camp" to the flat and solid-looking floe on which their aborted march had ended, and settled down to wait. The Southern Sky was not built for ice breaking, and retreated to Port Stanley in the Falkland Islands.[96]. [1] The expedition failed to accomplish this objective, but became recognized instead as an epic feat of endurance. Nevertheless, the depots were laid, but three lives were lost before the party's eventual rescue. "[24], Eventually the crews for the two arms of the expedition were trimmed down to 28 apiece, including William Bakewell, who joined the ship in Buenos Aires, his friend Perce Blackborow who stowed away when his application was turned down,[25] and several last-minute appointments made to the Ross Sea party in Australia. When the timbers broke they made noises which sailors later described as being similar to the sound of "heavy fireworks and the blasting of guns". [99] The priority for the party was a permanent shelter against the rapidly approaching southern winter. [20] Mackintosh was forced to haggle and plead for money and supplies to make his part of the expedition viable.

Without a map, the route they chose was largely conjectural. [126], Personnel of the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition, Works about the Imperial Trans-Antarctic expedition,, History of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 14 September 2020, at 01:11.

The struggles, the disappointments, and the endurance of this small party of Britishers, hidden away for nearly two years in the fastnesses of the Polar ice, striving to carry out the ordained task and ignorant of the crises through which the world was passing, make a story which is unique in the history of Antarctic exploration. After hearing of the Norwegian success Shackleton began to make preparations to start a last great journey—so that the first crossing of the last continent should be achieved by a British Expedition.

[105] Wild's thoughts were now seriously turning to the possibility of a boat trip to Deception Island—he planned to set out on 5 October, in the hope of meeting a whaling ship—[106] when, on 30 August 1916, the ordeal ended suddenly with the appearance of Shackleton and Yelcho. [94], Shackleton's first task, on arriving at the Stromness station, was to arrange for his three companions at Peggoty Camp to be picked up.


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